When it all started, and I mean really started, it was raining, though I suppose that it's always raining in London. The Nature of Arthur. At Merlin’s suggestion, Arthur created a brotherhood of warriors and arranged them around a Round Table, as a symbol of the world and the sky above their heads. For the rest, there is nothing that is out of place in the myth, not just the inclusion of women at the Round Table, but also of ‘commoners’, people of other races, Muslims and other ‘pagans’ and people with differential traits, like Sir Dinadan. While a common theme in medieval literature--Charlemagne is also said to sleep under a mountain--the reason for its attachment to King Arthur should be examined. Finally, we need address the subject of Cadbury Hill which, according to an old reference (Phelps, 1839, Ch. The Way Forward: Our cultural diversity is a precious heritage and different cultures will find their own distinctive ways to realize the vision. | Design ©, Other passages that this story illustrates, The Two Weavers and the Devil’s Grandmother. It was even spoken of in other parts of Europe, as witnessed by the French Peter de Blois (c. 1190) or the Italian Boncampagno da Signa (c. 1200) (Green, 2009). In the county of Somerset, southern England, to the southwest of the town of South Cadbury, there is a flat hill about 500 feet high with an immense plain above. Creating much calamity and misery for the Britons, barbarian tribes, from the other side of the channel, took advantage of the prevailing chaos to invade the island. These also include individuals with illnesses, like epilepsy, which were misunderstood in the Middle Ages. But such a finding is suspicious since it took place seven years after a fire had destroyed the abbey and all the treasures accumulated by the monks. The story’s hero and his companions resolve this crisis to finally announce, with their disappearance, that in the future there will be a similar, or more serious crisis, which will be solved by the same archetypes. If you belong to any media and wish to contact us, please write to pressdesk@avalonproject.org. Destruction, famine and untold dearth ravaged the people, as warlords and barbarians indulged in savage slaughter and looting, driven by their pathetic greed. Malory would introduce the legend into the tale, beginning with Arthur’s own words to Bedivere: ‘Confort thyself,’ said the king, ‘and do as well as thou mayest, for in me is no trust in; for I will into the vale of Avilion to heal me of my grievous wound: and if thou hear never more of me, pray for my soul.’ (Malory, 1969, p. 517), Yet some men say in many parts of England that King Arthur is not dead, but had by the will of Our Lord Jesu into another place; and men say that he shall come again, and he shall win the holy cross. Preamble: The Global Situation.- Communities are being undermined. However, we must find ways to harmonize diversity with unity, the exercise of freedom with the common good, short-term objectives with long-term goals. For this story begins with a serious crisis befalling the civilising system, that of the so-called Dark Ages. According to archaeological studies, it housed a significant number of troops between the 5th and 6th centuries, the same time as one of the historical figures aspiring to be the authentic Arthur. This was the seat of Arthur’s government, and where the great hall and the Round Table was sited. The alleged tomb of Arthur to which Malory refers was found, in 1190, in Glastonbury Abbey. But many men say that there is written upon his tomb this verse: hic iacet arthurus, rex quondam rexque futurus. The Way Forward: Let ours be a time remembered for the awakening of a new reverence for life, the firm resolve to achieve sustainability, the quickening of the struggle for justice and peace …. Elijah is said to return; a son of Zoroaster will come; Baldr will be resurrected at Ragnarok; Charlemagne is under Chateau Montsegur2, Francis Drake and Drake's Drum; Holger Danske will rise from his repose (either below Kronborg Castle at Elsinore, or Nonnebakken at Odense) and fight to preserve Denmark in her hour of need1; and so on. As for the tradition of the return of Arthur and his warriors from Avalon, we find its scholarly and literary root in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s classic, Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1138). Principle 13e: Eliminate corruption in all public and private institutions. We must deepen and expand the global dialogue that generated the Earth Charter, for we have much to learn from the ongoing collaborative search for truth and wisdom. In the end, only Arthur, Mordred and the good Bedivere, wounded, remained alive. tomb this verse: Hic jacet Arthurus, Rex quondam, Rexque futurus (Here lies Arthur, the once and future King).” Arthur may sleep still, but on this unique sojourn we will invoke his spirit and explore a variety of Arthurian texts as we travel through the landscapes that inspired them. On the backs of this brethrenhood of men and women of all races and conditions, of this elite assembly of justice and care, the people and lands of Britannia lived a prodigious time, better than they had ever lived before, or since. This is the remains of a hillfort, a wooden fortification (the stone came with the myth). White’s title had been borrowed from the ancient mythic inscription said to mark the legendary king’s tomb, which read “Hic iacet Arthurus, rex quondam, rexque futurus”, or “Here lies Arthur, king once, and king to be.” Also eloquent in the prevalence and spread of the legend of Arthur’s return is the fact that a Spanish chronicler recounted, at the end of the 16th Century, that the Spanish King Felipe ii swore when he married Mary Tudor in 1554, that he would renounce the kingdom of England if Arthur returned (Padel, 1994). I will not say that it shall be so, but rather I will say, here in this world he changed his life. Principle 11b: Promote the active participation of women in all aspects of economic, political, civil, social, and cultural life as full and equal partners, decision makers, leaders, and beneficiaries. Together we … For they avow that there come be a day when the world will be in grave danger, and then King Arthur will return at the head of his brethrenhood of the Round Table, and his army of warriors, to avert disaster and bring a new golden age to the peoples of the world and the Earth. Highlighting the character of the Isle of Avalon as a fairy island, John Lydgate, in his Fall of Princes (1431-1438), echoed the belief that Arthur ‘shall resorte as lord and sovereyne Out of fayrye and regne in Breteyne’ (Green, 2009). In the village, located less than 1,000 feet from the path that goes up the hill, there is an ancient legend. In this way, the Round Table grew with warriors coming from half the world. The fame of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table reached all corners of the known world, and knights from other lands, other colours and other faiths began to arrive, yearning to join the brotherhood in order to assume its code of honour and increase the nobility of their souls. I mean, it failed to say anything about the Rex Quondam, Rexque Futurus. Yet some men say in many parts of England that King Arthur is not dead, but had by the will of our Lord Jesu into another place... many men say that there is written upon his tomb this verse: Hic jacet Arthurus, Rex quondam, Rexque futurus. Hence, the survival of the Cadbury legend is not strange. There was a time when the land of the Britons was thrown into chaos. Radford, C. A. R. & Swanton, M. J. Preamble: To move forward we must recognize that in the midst of a magnificent diversity of cultures and life forms we are one human family and one Earth community with a common destiny. The benefits of development are not shared equitably and the gap between rich and poor is widening. In one of the most difficult moments in the future of the brethrenhood, after the flower of chivalry succumbed in the Quest of the Holy Grail, the cursed Mordred, the incestuous son of Arthur, rallied the most devious and miserable of feudal lords of Britannia. This belief can also be found in other parts of Britain. His name was Arthur, and he did not come alone, but was accompanied by a great wizard, possibly the greatest magician of all time: Merlin. That is why they say of King Arthur that he is the once and future king: Rex Quondam, Rexque Futurus. It was when the empire collapsed under a band of inept and corrupt rulers, in cahoots with a few great merchants equally sick with greed, who did not leave the peoples even the crumbs of their misery. However, the oldest written source is not that of Geoffrey of Monmouth, but seems to be found in the writings of William of Malmesbury (1125), who said that ‘Arthur’s grave is nowhere seen, whence antiquity of fables still claims that he will return’ (Padel, 1994). Rex Quondam, Rexque Futurus Celtic Tradition – Britain and France . Arthur, seeing the shadows of death approaching, gave Bedivere the sword of his royalty, Excalibur, and entrusted him to return it to its true owner, the Lady of the Lake. In one he mentioned the caves of Cadbury Hill in which Arthur and his warriors slept. This legend says that Cadbury Hill is hollow inside. However, the characters, stories and symbols associated with the Arthurian Cycle have clear roots in Celtic mythology (Campbell, 1991). The Rex Quondam, Rexque Futurus is, in this sense, a magnificent example of a story that emerged from a culture with a clear cyclical concept of time. For more on this topic, I suggest reading ‘The Community of the Round Table’, which is included in this Collection and found among the stories in the epilogue of the Earth Charter. These trends are perilous—but not inevitable. A Welsh antiquarian Elis Gruffudd, spoke of it at the beginning of the 16th Century. There was a time when the land of the Britons was thrown into chaos. Principle 11a: Secure the human rights of women and girls and end all violence against them. Arthur killed Mordred, but the king was fatally wounded. Injustice, poverty, ignorance, and violent conflict are widespread and the cause of great suffering. This means: ‘Here lies buried the illustrious King Arthur, on the Isle of Avalon’. Finally, it is worth drawing attention to something especially striking about this myth of the future: how the cyclical –and non-linear– nature of the concept of time is clear throughout the story. I-Like-Rhymes - Sorry to disappoint you Grace but "Hic iacet Arthurus Rex quondam Rex que futurus" is a quotation from a much earlier work. However, many of those values and attitudes –such as, for example, the high value placed on women– probably came from the Celtic culture which produced the seed of these stories. Actually, the belief in Arthur’s survival was so powerful among the people that the Belgian monk Hériman de Tournai (c. 1146) recounted that, in 1113, there was a violent outbreak in Wales at a religious meeting when a clergyman commented that King Arthur was dead (Green, 2009). Green, C. R. (2009). (Malory, 1969, p. 519). On the other hand, Malory was wrong to transcribe the epitaph that, according to the monks, had appeared in Arthur’s tomb. They all wanted to be ‘the King’, but none of them had the spirit of a true king. The Way Forward: Life often involves tensions between important values. VI, §1, p. 118), was formerly called Camelet with a clear resonance to the Camelot of the myth. But the wiles of the foolish, the mean and the greedy were to destroy that magnificent golden age, and betrayal opened the doors to disaster. Three centuries later, the legend was still alive. And, shortly after, the last of the great medieval creators of the Arthurian Cycle, Thomas Malory, in his Le Morte d’Arthur (1485), would record the legend under the heading Rex quondam Rexque futurus. (1975). ! This is not an invention of mine either, since I have taken the ideas of a contemporary version of the myth which, however recent, does not detract from it in any way. It is said that it is there the castle of Camelot was, at one time, located. "Le Morte Darthur" by Sir Thomas Malory (or as he was known SIR THOMAS MALLEORRE) born 1416! In addition, many authors during the 12th Century speak of the ‘hope of the Britons’, a legend which was apparently widespread in popular tradition. An unprecedented rise in human population has overburdened ecological and social systems. Thus, they pledged, under oath, to protect the weak from the abuses of the powerful, to help the most disadvantaged by administering justice, to defend and protect women from malicious men, to create just conditions so that girls and boys could grow up in a fertile environment, and old people could end their days in peace. Hic jacet Arthurus, Rex quondam, Rexque futurus. A short time later, and with the help of Merlin, the true king managed to gather, under his dragon flag, all the kings and lords of Britain, to defeat the invading barbarians in a series of confrontations that would culminate in the Battle of Mount Badon. Later, Geoffrey himself would introduce a twist to the legend in his Vita Merlini (c. 1151), in which he claimed that Arthur was still alive and could return from Avalon to rule again (Green, 2009). (1994). It was then that a true king emerged in the westernmost regions of the country. As for the return of King Arthur, the messianic element of the Arthurian mythos is not to be overlooked. Drawing the sword from the stone, something no one had been able to do to claim the throne, the young king earned everyone’s respect for his integrity, righteousness and nobility. Thank you. And, these being the conditions to be part of the brethrenhood, how could there not be women? He wrote two versions of the legend. It was when the empire collapsed under a band of inept and corrupt rulers, in cahoots with a few great merchants equally sick with greed, who did not leave the peoples even the crumbs of their misery. Principle 9c: Recognise the ignored, protect the vulnerable, serve those who suffer, and enable them to develop their capacities and to pursue their aspirations. In it, no one had a privileged place, and the king, without ceasing to be the King, conversed with his warriors like any other knight. This can mean difficult choices. The only thing, that I know of, that does not appear in the medieval versions is the story related to the priestesses of the Goddess in Avalon. If you wish to collaborate with The Earth Stories Collection, if you wish to contribute traditional stories from your own culture to the pool of the Collection, or simply want more information, do not hesitate to write to info@avalonproject.org, or click the Get Involved section of the menu and go to the corresponding section. That is, ‘Here lies Arthur, the once and future king’. This would eventually give rise to female devotion, as expressed in courtly love, and Dante’s Faithfuls of Love. Obviously, it was better for the monks that he was dead and well dead, and that people believed that he was buried in their abbey. ‘But Arthur’s grave is nowhere seen’: Twelfth-century and later solutions to Arthur’s current whereabouts. Under license Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA. There, before the Round Table, they all conspired so that, once peace was achieved, the people of Britannia could rebuild their lives and flourish. However, similar legends speak of Arthur, his brotherhood of the Round Table and his warriors as being asleep, or lethargic, in caves. Principle 16f: Recognise that peace is the wholeness created by right relationships with oneself, other persons, other cultures, other life, Earth, and the larger whole of which all are a part. From this story I have tried to gather relevant information about this myth of the future, although it is scattered throughout different medieval versions of the Arthurian Cycle as well as in the oral traditions of Great Britain and France.